PrognoHealth – Corporate Health & Wellness Specialist

Eye Disease : Causes, Symptoms and Effective Treatment

Types Of Eye Disease :

Eye diseases encompass a wide range of conditions that can affect various parts of the eye, leading to vision impairment or loss. Understanding the different types of eye diseases is crucial for early detection, treatment, and prevention. Below are some of the most common types of eye diseases:

1.Cataracts : Cataracts involve the clouding of the eye’s natural lens, leading to decreased vision. They are often related to aging but can also result from trauma, radiation exposure, or be present at birth. Symptoms include blurry vision, glare, and difficulty seeing at night. Cataract surgery is a common and effective treatment.

2. Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, usually due to high intraocular pressure. This can lead to progressive vision loss, starting with peripheral vision. Types of glaucoma include open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma. Treatments include medications, laser therapy, and surgery.

3. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD): AMD affects the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp central vision. There are two types: dry (atrophic) and wet (neovascular). Dry AMD involves the thinning of the macula, while wet AMD involves abnormal blood vessels growing under the retina. Symptoms include blurred vision and dark spots in the central vision. Treatments for wet AMD include anti-VEGF injections, while dry AMD management focuses on lifestyle changes and nutritional supplements.

4. Diabetic Retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the retina’s blood vessels. It can cause blood vessels to swell, leak, or grow abnormally. Symptoms include floaters, blurred vision, and vision loss. Management involves strict control of blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol, along with laser surgery or injections.

5. Retinal Detachment: Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from its underlying tissue, potentially leading to permanent vision loss if not treated promptly. It can result from trauma, severe nearsightedness, or following eye surgery. Symptoms include sudden flashes of light, floaters, and a shadow over the visual field. Treatment often requires surgical intervention.

6. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye): Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin layer covering the white part of the eye and the inner eyelids. It can be caused by infections (viral or bacterial), allergies, or irritants. Symptoms include redness, itching, and discharge. Treatment depends on the cause and may include antibiotics, antihistamines, or simply supportive care.

7. Keratitis: Keratitis is the inflammation of the cornea and can be caused by infections (bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic) or non-infectious factors (injury, dry eyes). Symptoms include pain, redness, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. Treatment varies based on the cause and can range from antibiotics and antiviral medications to anti-inflammatory drugs.

8. Amblyopia (Lazy Eye): Amblyopia occurs when one eye develops better vision than the other, usually due to strabismus (misalignment of the eyes), a significant difference in refractive errors, or cataracts. The brain favors the better-seeing eye, leading to poor vision in the other. Early treatment, often involving eye patches, glasses, or surgery, is crucial for correcting this condition.

9. Strabismus: Strabismus, or crossed eyes, is a condition where the eyes do not properly align with each other. It can be constant or intermittent and can lead to double vision or amblyopia. Causes include muscle imbalances, neurological issues, or genetic factors. Treatments include glasses, vision therapy, and surgery.

10. Uveitis: Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. It can result from infections, autoimmune diseases, or trauma. Symptoms include pain, redness, blurred vision, and light sensitivity. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

11. Dry Eye Syndrome: Dry eye syndrome occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly. This can lead to irritation, redness, and a gritty sensation. Causes include aging, certain medications, and environmental factors. Management includes artificial tears, lifestyle changes, and sometimes prescription medications.

12. Corneal Diseases: Corneal diseases can include conditions like keratoconus, where the cornea thins and bulges outward, and corneal dystrophies, which are genetic conditions that cause cloudy vision. Symptoms vary but can include visual distortion and pain. Treatments range from corrective lenses and corneal cross-linking to corneal transplants.

13. Optic Neuritis: Optic neuritis is the inflammation of the optic nerve, often associated with multiple sclerosis. Symptoms include sudden vision loss, pain with eye movement, and color vision changes. Treatment involves corticosteroids and addressing the underlying cause.

Causes Of Eye Disease :

Eye diseases can arise from a multitude of factors, ranging from genetic predispositions to environmental influences. Understanding these causes is essential for prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment. Here are detailed descriptions of various causes of eye diseases:

1. Genetic Factors: Many eye diseases have a genetic component, meaning they can be inherited from one’s parents. Conditions like retinitis pigmentosa, congenital cataracts, and certain forms of glaucoma often run in families. Genetic mutations can affect the development and function of the eye, leading to various disorders.

2. Aging: As people age, the risk of developing eye diseases increases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, and glaucoma are more prevalent in older adults. Aging affects the eye’s structures and functions, making them more susceptible to disease. For instance, the lens can become clouded, leading to cataracts, or the macula can deteriorate, causing AMD.

3. Infections: Infections can cause severe eye diseases. Bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections can all affect the eyes. Conjunctivitis (pink eye) is commonly caused by bacterial or viral infections, while keratitis can result from bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. Herpes simplex virus can lead to herpes keratitis, a serious corneal infection.

4. Autoimmune Diseases : Autoimmune diseases, where the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues, can affect the eyes. Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and sarcoidosis can lead to uveitis, an inflammation of the uvea. Multiple sclerosis can cause optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve.

5. Diabetes : Diabetes is a significant risk factor for eye diseases. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss. Diabetes also increases the risk of cataracts and glaucoma.

6. Hypertension: High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to hypertensive retinopathy. This condition can cause bleeding, swelling, and vision loss. Managing blood pressure is crucial for preventing eye damage.

7. Trauma : Eye injuries from accidents, sports, or workplace hazards can lead to various eye diseases. Trauma can cause corneal abrasions, retinal detachment, or even damage to the optic nerve. Protective eyewear is essential in high-risk activities to prevent such injuries.

8. Environmental Factors: Environmental factors like UV radiation, pollution, and exposure to harmful chemicals can cause or exacerbate eye diseases. UV radiation from the sun can lead to cataracts and increase the risk of AMD. Long-term exposure to air pollution can cause dry eyes and other inflammatory conditions.

9. Nutritional Deficiencies : Proper nutrition is vital for eye health. Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin A, C, E, and zinc, can lead to eye diseases. Vitamin A deficiency is a leading cause of preventable blindness in children, causing conditions like xerophthalmia and night blindness.

10. Lifestyle Choices: Lifestyle choices such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can adversely affect eye health. Smoking is a significant risk factor for AMD, cataracts, and uveitis. Alcohol abuse can lead to nutritional deficiencies that affect the eyes and overall vision health.

11. Medications: Certain medications can have side effects that impact the eyes. Long-term use of corticosteroids can increase the risk of cataracts and glaucoma. Some drugs used for treating acne, such as isotretinoin, can cause dry eyes and other visual disturbances.

12. Refractive Errors: Refractive errors like myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia occur when the eye does not focus light correctly on the retina. While these conditions are not diseases per se, severe refractive errors can lead to complications and increased risk for other eye conditions.

13. Allergies: Allergic reactions can affect the eyes, leading to allergic conjunctivitis. Pollen, dust mites, pet dander, and other allergens can cause itching, redness, and swelling in the eyes. Managing allergies through medications and avoiding triggers is essential for eye health.

14. Hormonal Changes : Hormonal changes, particularly during pregnancy, menopause, and aging, can affect the eyes. Pregnancy can cause dry eyes, changes in refractive errors, and even gestational diabetes, which can affect vision. Hormonal fluctuations during menopause can also lead to dry eye syndrome.

15. Poor Eye Care: Neglecting regular eye care and protection can lead to various eye diseases. Not wearing sunglasses to protect against UV radiation, inadequate hygiene leading to infections, and not having regular eye exams can all contribute to the development of eye diseases.

Symptoms Of Eye Disease:

Eye diseases can present with a variety of symptoms that can range from mild discomfort to severe vision loss. Recognizing these symptoms early can be crucial for prompt treatment and prevention of further damage. Here is a detailed description of common symptoms associated with various eye diseases:

1. Blurred Vision: Blurred vision is a common symptom of many eye diseases, including cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration. It can be caused by changes in the eye’s lens, retina, or optic nerve. Blurred vision may occur suddenly or gradually and can affect one or both eyes.

2. Redness: Redness in the eyes can indicate inflammation or infection. Conditions like conjunctivitis (pink eye), uveitis, and keratitis often cause redness. Allergies and environmental irritants can also lead to red eyes. Persistent redness should be evaluated by an eye care professional.

3. Eye Pain: Eye pain can range from mild discomfort to severe, debilitating pain. It can be caused by conditions such as corneal abrasions, glaucoma, optic neuritis, and uveitis. Eye pain may be accompanied by other symptoms like redness, watering, or blurred vision.

4. Light Sensitivity (Photophobia): Photophobia, or sensitivity to light, can be a symptom of various eye conditions, including uveitis, keratitis, and corneal abrasions. It can also be associated with migraines and certain systemic infections. Patients may experience discomfort in bright light or find it difficult to be outdoors.

5. Floaters: Floaters are small spots or shapes that drift through the field of vision. They are often caused by age-related changes in the vitreous gel of the eye but can also be a symptom of retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, or uveitis. A sudden increase in floaters should prompt an immediate visit to an eye specialist.

6. Flashes of Light: Seeing flashes of light, especially in peripheral vision, can be a sign of retinal detachment or posterior vitreous detachment. This symptom should be taken seriously and evaluated promptly to prevent permanent vision loss.

7. Double Vision (Diplopia): Double vision can occur when the eyes do not align properly or when there is a problem with the lens, cornea, or optic nerve. Conditions such as strabismus, cataracts, and certain neurological disorders can cause double vision. It can affect one or both eyes and may be constant or intermittent.

8. Vision Loss : Partial or complete vision loss can occur suddenly or gradually, affecting one or both eyes. It is a serious symptom that can result from conditions such as retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and optic neuritis. Immediate medical attention is necessary to determine the cause and initiate treatment.

9. Discharge : Discharge from the eyes can be a symptom of infections, such as bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, or allergic reactions. The discharge can be watery, mucous-like, or pus-like. It may cause the eyelids to stick together, especially after sleep.

10. Itching : Itching is a common symptom of allergic conjunctivitis, dry eyes, and blepharitis. It can be accompanied by redness, tearing, and swelling. Avoiding allergens and using prescribed medications can help alleviate this symptom.

11. Swelling : Swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes can indicate infections, allergies, or trauma. Conditions like conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and styes often cause swelling. Severe swelling that affects vision should be evaluated by a healthcare provider.

12. Dryness: Dry eyes can cause a gritty or sandy sensation, discomfort, and redness. It can result from decreased tear production or increased tear evaporation. Conditions like Sjögren’s syndrome, certain medications, and environmental factors can contribute to dry eyes.

13. Tearing: Excessive tearing, or epiphora, can occur due to irritation, infections, allergies, or blocked tear ducts. While it may seem counterintuitive, dry eyes can also cause excessive tearing as the eyes try to compensate for the dryness.

14. Haloes Around Lights: Seeing haloes or rings around lights can be a symptom of cataracts, glaucoma, or corneal edema. This symptom is often more noticeable at night or in low-light conditions and can significantly affect night vision.

15. Distorted Vision: Distorted vision, where straight lines appear wavy or bent, can be a sign of macular degeneration or other retinal conditions. This distortion can affect reading, recognizing faces, and other detailed tasks.

16. Color Vision Changes: Changes in color vision can occur with optic neuritis, certain types of cataracts, and macular degeneration. Patients may notice that colors appear faded or less vibrant. This symptom can indicate damage to the retina or optic nerve.

17. Eye Movement Abnormalities: Difficulty moving the eyes or misalignment (strabismus) can cause double vision and other visual disturbances. It can result from muscle or nerve problems and requires thorough evaluation to determine the underlying cause.

18. Eyelid Problems: Issues such as drooping eyelids (ptosis), twitching (myokymia), or inflammation (blepharitis) can indicate various underlying conditions. These symptoms can affect vision and comfort and may require medical or surgical intervention.

19. Night Blindness: Difficulty seeing in low light or at night, known as night blindness (nyctalopia), can be a symptom of conditions like retinitis pigmentosa or vitamin A deficiency. Patients may find it challenging to drive at night or navigate dimly lit areas.

Diagnosis Of Eye Disease

Diagnosing eye diseases involves a comprehensive approach that includes a detailed medical history, visual acuity tests, and a variety of specialized examinations and imaging techniques. Early and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective treatment and management. Here is a detailed description of the diagnostic process for eye diseases:

1. Medical History and Symptom Review: The diagnostic process begins with a thorough medical history and review of symptoms. The eye care professional will ask about:
– Family history of eye diseases or genetic conditions.
– Personal medical history including chronic conditions such as diabetes or hypertension.
– Current symptoms such as vision changes, pain, redness, or discharge.
– Medication use, including over-the-counter drugs and supplements.
– Lifestyle factors, such as smoking, diet, and occupational hazards.

2. Visual Acuity Test: The visual acuity test measures the clarity or sharpness of vision. Patients read letters on a Snellen chart placed at a standard distance. This test helps identify refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism.

3. Refraction Test: During a refraction test, the eye care professional uses a phoropter to measure the eye’s focusing power and determine the appropriate lens prescription. This test helps diagnose refractive errors and is essential for prescribing corrective lenses.

4. Slit-Lamp Examination: A slit-lamp examination provides a magnified view of the eye’s structures, including the cornea, iris, lens, and retina. This microscope uses a bright, narrow beam of light to examine the eye in detail. It helps detect conditions such as cataracts, corneal injuries, and retinal disorders.

5. Ophthalmoscopy (Fundus Examination): Ophthalmoscopy involves examining the retina, optic disc, and blood vessels at the back of the eye. The eye care professional uses an ophthalmoscope to shine a light through the pupil and visualize these structures. This test is crucial for diagnosing conditions like diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and glaucoma.

6. Tonometry: Tonometry measures intraocular pressure (IOP), which is important for diagnosing glaucoma. The most common method is applanation tonometry, where a small, flat-tipped probe gently touches the cornea to measure the eye’s pressure. Elevated IOP can indicate glaucoma, which requires further evaluation and treatment.

7. Visual Field Test: A visual field test assesses peripheral vision and detects blind spots (scotomas). The patient looks straight ahead into a machine and signals when they see lights in their peripheral vision. This test helps diagnose glaucoma, optic nerve damage, and other neurological conditions affecting vision.

8. Retinal Imaging: Retinal imaging techniques provide detailed pictures of the retina and surrounding structures. Common methods include:
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This non-invasive imaging test captures cross-sectional images of the retina, allowing for detailed assessment of retinal layers. It is useful for diagnosing macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.
Fundus Photography: This technique takes high-resolution images of the retina, helping to document and monitor retinal conditions.
Fluorescein Angiography: A dye is injected into the bloodstream, and a special camera captures images of the retinal blood vessels. It helps diagnose and monitor diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.

9. Ultrasound Imaging: Ocular ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the eye’s internal structures. It is particularly useful when the view of the retina is obscured by cataracts or other conditions. Ultrasound can help diagnose retinal detachment, tumors, and other abnormalities.

10. Corneal Topography: Corneal topography maps the curvature of the cornea, providing detailed information about its shape and surface. This test is essential for diagnosing conditions like keratoconus, planning refractive surgery, and fitting contact lenses.

11. Pachymetry: Pachymetry measures the thickness of the cornea using ultrasound or optical devices. Corneal thickness is important for diagnosing and managing glaucoma, as it can affect intraocular pressure readings.

12. Electroretinography (ERG) and Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP): ERG measures the electrical responses of the retina to light stimuli, helping diagnose retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophies. VEP measures the electrical activity in the brain in response to visual stimuli, useful for detecting optic nerve disorders and other neurological conditions.

13. Genetic Testing: For hereditary eye diseases, genetic testing can identify specific mutations associated with conditions like retinitis pigmentosa, congenital cataracts, and certain forms of glaucoma. This information can guide treatment and provide insights into the disease’s progression.

14. Laboratory Tests: In some cases, blood tests and other laboratory tests may be necessary to diagnose underlying systemic conditions affecting the eyes. For example, autoimmune markers can help diagnose uveitis caused by systemic inflammatory diseases.

15. Specialized Tests for Specific Conditions:  Certain eye diseases require specialized diagnostic tests:
Gonioscopy: This test examines the drainage angle of the eye, which is crucial for diagnosing different types of glaucoma.
Amsler Grid Test: Used to detect macular degeneration, this test involves looking at a grid of straight lines to see if any appear wavy or missing.

Eye Disease Treatment :

Treating eye diseases requires a multifaceted approach tailored to the specific condition, its severity, and the patient’s overall health. Treatments range from medications and lifestyle changes to surgical interventions. Here is a detailed description of various treatments for different eye diseases:

1. Medications

a. Eye Drops

Glaucoma: Eye drops to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), such as prostaglandin analogs, beta-blockers, alpha agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
Dry Eyes: Artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drops like cyclosporine, and lifitegrast.
Allergies: Antihistamine or mast cell stabilizer drops.

b. Oral Medications
Infections: Antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections.
Uveitis: Oral corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs for inflammation.

c. Injections
Diabetic Retinopathy and AMD: Anti-VEGF injections (e.g., ranibizumab, aflibercept, bevacizumab) to reduce abnormal blood vessel growth.
Uveitis: Steroid injections for severe inflammation.

2. Laser Treatments

Glaucoma: Laser trabeculoplasty to improve fluid drainage and lower IOP.
Diabetic Retinopathy: Panretinal photocoagulation to seal leaking blood vessels and reduce retinal swelling.
Retinal Tears: Laser photocoagulation to create a barrier and prevent retinal detachment.

3. Surgical Interventions :

a. Cataract Surgery

– Removal of the clouded lens and replacement with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). This is the most common and effective treatment for cataracts.

b. Glaucoma Surgery

Trabeculectomy: Creating a new drainage pathway for eye fluid.
Glaucoma Drainage Devices: Implantation of tubes or shunts to help fluid exit the eye.
Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS): Procedures like iStent, Hydrus, or Cypass to improve fluid outflow with minimal tissue disruption.

c. Retinal Surgery :

Vitrectomy: Removal of the vitreous gel to repair retinal detachment, treat macular holes, or clear vitreous hemorrhage.
Scleral Buckling: Using a silicone band to press the eye wall against the detached retina.

d. Corneal Surgery :

– Corneal Transplant (Keratoplasty): Replacing the damaged cornea with a donor cornea.

– Corneal Cross-Linking: Strengthening the cornea for conditions like keratoconus.

4. Vision Therapy :

For conditions like amblyopia (lazy eye) and strabismus (crossed eyes), vision therapy involves exercises and activities to improve eye coordination and visual processing. In children, this may involve patching the stronger eye to strengthen the weaker one.

5. Lifestyle and Home Remedies :

Diet and Nutrition: Consuming a diet rich in antioxidants, vitamins A, C, and E, and minerals like zinc can support eye health. Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for dry eyes.

– UV Protection: Wearing sunglasses that block UV rays to protect against cataracts and macular degeneration.

– Smoking Cessation: Reducing the risk of AMD and other eye diseases.

– Blood Sugar Control: For diabetic patients, maintaining good blood sugar levels to prevent diabetic retinopathy.

6. Assistive Devices :

– Low Vision Aids: Magnifying glasses, special reading glasses, and electronic magnifiers to help those with significant vision loss.

– Braille and Audio Books: For patients with severe vision impairment, learning Braille and using audio books can improve quality of life.

7. Gene Therapy :

For hereditary retinal diseases like Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), gene therapy involves delivering a correct copy of a gene to retinal cells using a viral vector. This emerging field offers hope for treating genetic eye conditions.

8. Stem Cell Therapy:

Research is ongoing in using stem cells to regenerate damaged retinal cells or replace dysfunctional corneal cells. This has potential for treating conditions like AMD and corneal dystrophies.

9. Emerging Treatments :

– Bionic Eye Implants: Retinal implants like the Argus II can partially restore vision in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

– Pharmacologic Chaperones: Small molecules that stabilize misfolded proteins in genetic eye diseases.

– Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs aimed at protecting optic nerve cells in glaucoma and other neurodegenerative eye diseases.

10. Regular Monitoring and Follow-Up:

– Routine Eye Exams: Essential for early detection and management of eye diseases.

– Specialist Consultations: Regular visits to ophthalmologists or retina specialists for ongoing management of chronic conditions like diabetic retinopathy or AMD.

Frequently Asked Questions: 

1. What are the most common symptoms of eye diseases?
Common symptoms include blurred vision, eye pain, redness, light sensitivity, floaters, flashes of light, double vision, vision loss, itching, and discharge. If you experience any of these symptoms, it’s important to consult an eye care professional.
2. Can eye diseases be prevented?
While not all eye diseases can be prevented, adopting healthy lifestyle habits such as wearing sunglasses, eating a balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants, avoiding smoking, and getting regular eye exams can significantly reduce the risk of many eye conditions.
3. How often should I have an eye exam?
It is recommended to have an eye exam every 1-2 years, depending on your age, health condition, and risk factors. Those with existing eye conditions or at higher risk may need more frequent exams.
4. What is glaucoma and how is it treated?
Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often due to high intraocular pressure. Treatments include prescription eye drops, oral medications, laser therapy, and surgery to lower eye pressure and prevent further damage.
5. What causes cataracts and how are they treated?
Cataracts are caused by the clouding of the eye’s natural lens, usually due to aging, but also from trauma, certain medications, or medical conditions. They are treated by surgical removal of the cloudy lens and replacement with an artificial intraocular lens.
6. What is macular degeneration and who is at risk?
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition that affects the central part of the retina, leading to vision loss. Risk factors include age, smoking, family history, and prolonged exposure to UV light. Treatments focus on slowing progression and may include vitamins, laser therapy, and anti-VEGF injections.
7. How can diabetes affect my eyes?
Diabetes can cause diabetic retinopathy, where high blood sugar levels damage the retinal blood vessels, leading to vision loss. Managing blood sugar levels, regular eye exams, and treatments like laser therapy or anti-VEGF injections can help prevent and manage this condition.
8. What are floaters and when should I be concerned?
Floaters are small spots or threads that drift through your field of vision, often due to age-related changes in the vitreous gel. If you experience a sudden increase in floaters or flashes of light, it could indicate retinal detachment, and you should seek immediate medical attention.
9. What is the difference between an optometrist and an ophthalmologist?
An optometrist provides primary eye care, including vision testing, prescribing corrective lenses, and diagnosing common eye conditions. An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who can perform eye surgery, treat severe eye diseases, and provide comprehensive eye care.
10. Can children get eye diseases, and what are common conditions?
Yes, children can develop eye diseases. Common conditions include amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (crossed eyes), congenital cataracts, and refractive errors. Early detection and treatment are crucial for preventing long-term vision problems.
11. What is dry eye syndrome and how is it treated?
Dry eye syndrome occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly. Treatments include artificial tears, prescription eye drops like cyclosporine, punctal plugs, and lifestyle changes such as using a humidifier and taking breaks from screens.
12. How can I protect my eyes from computer strain?
To protect your eyes from computer strain, follow the 20-20-20 rule: every 20 minutes, look at something 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds. Ensure proper lighting, reduce glare, use ergonomic setups, and consider computer glasses if needed.
13. What are the signs of an eye infection?
Signs of an eye infection include redness, pain, discharge, swelling, itching, and sensitivity to light. Common infections include conjunctivitis (pink eye), keratitis, and blepharitis. If you suspect an infection, seek medical advice for appropriate treatment.
14. Are eye diseases hereditary?
Many eye diseases have a genetic component and can run in families. Conditions such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and certain types of cataracts can be inherited. Knowing your family history can help in early detection and management.
15. What is uveitis and how is it managed?
Uveitis is inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. It can cause pain, redness, light sensitivity, and blurred vision. Treatment often includes corticosteroid eye drops, oral medications, and immunosuppressive agents to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

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      Why Choose PrognoHealth..??

      • Best health services from different health service providers offered under one umbrella.

      • Big savings on your healthcare cost

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      • Customized Health Packages