Eye Care & Common Vision Problems
The main parts of the human eye are the cornea, iris, pupil, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, retina, and optic nerve. Light enters the eye by passing through the cornea (which also acts as a lens) and the aqueous humor (fluid beneath the cornea). The iris controls the size of the pupil. As the pupil gets bigger (dilates), more light enters the eye.
The lens allows the eye to focus on either distant or near objects. The ciliary muscles surround the lens and help in the contraction and relaxation. Light focused on the lens goes through the vitreous humor, gel-like substance, to the retina. The retina consists of rods and cones which translate the light into an electrical signal that travels through the optic nerve to the brain. Rods detect light and dark while cones are responsible for color vision.
The most common vision problems are hyperopia (farsightedness), myopia (nearsightedness), and presbyopia (age-related farsightedness). Other problems include cataracts (clouding and hardening of the lens), glaucoma (increased fluid pressure, which can damage the optic nerve), and macular degeneration (degeneration of the retina).
Apart from genetic problems, Mishaps and incidents, malnutrition, eye infections and eye diseases, ill-effects of other major disorders like diabetes, improper postures adopted at workplaces, reading, writing and working in defective and improper lights and strain on the eyes due to overwork are some of the major reason which causes visual impairment.
Some common problems which sound familiar are mentioned below:
Eyestrain: When you read for hours, work at a computer, watch television for a long time, watch the mobile screen frequently or drive long distances have suffered very commonly with this issue. This means that you have overused your eyes and they have got tired just like any other part of the body. If your eyes get strained, give them some time off by closing them for a few minutes or washing the eyes. If the problem persists even after taken care and avoiding strain, check with your doctor.
Red eyes: Sometimes your eyes look bloodshot. The surface of the eyes is covered with blood vessels. The blood vessels expand when they get irritated or infected. Eyestrain, lack of sleep, allergies, or injury can cause red-eye. Red eyes can also be a symptom of eye condition known as conjunctivitis. These symptoms usually get treated with OTC eye drops and rest. If problems persist, consult the doctor.
Dry eyes: When you feel like something is burning in your eyes, you are suffering from dry eye syndrome. This happens when the eyes are not able to make enough good-quality tears. Extreme dryness can lead to loss of vision. It is better to consult the doctor if the symptoms are recurrent.
Excess tearing: excess tearing has nothing to do with your feelings. If you are sensitive to light, wind or temperature changes, you will experience excess tearing. Try to protect your eyes by shielding them. Consult the doctor to diagnose whether you are suffering from a blocked tear duct.
Vision changes: It is perfectly normal for the vision to show changes as you grow older. You will probably need glasses or contacts and may choose to have surgery to correct the vision. Some vision changes may be chronic and require immediate medical attention
Tips to maintain good eye health:
Eat nutritional food rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, zinc, and vitamin C and E.
Quit smoking as smoking makes you more likely to get cataracts, optic nerve damage, and macular degeneration.
Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun’s UV rays.
Use safety eyewear while working with hazardous or airborne materials on the job or at home.
Do not strain your eyes by staring at the computer, television, books, and mobile screens for a longer time. Give the rest frequently.
Visit your doctor for an eye check-up and health check-up. Health check-up related to nutritional levels, glucose levels will help to identify these chronic disorders which may also cause vision impairment.